Standard Article

Encountered Data

Ecological Statistics

  1. Eric P. Smith

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vae026.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Smith, E. P. 2013. Encountered Data . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 2.

Author Information

  1. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Data that are obtained in ecological and environmental data is often not collected via an experimental or sampling design but rather is observed. Examples include fish that are collected via a net, plants that are observed when walking a transect line and birds heard in a wetland survey. Data arising from these types of studies are sometimes referred to as encountered data.


  • weighted distributions;
  • size-biased sampling;
  • resource selection;
  • biological sampling;
  • distance sampling