Standard Article

Global Environment Monitoring System, Water


  1. Abdel H. El-shaarawi1,2,3

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vae033.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

El-shaarawi, A. H. 2013. Global Environment Monitoring System, Water . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Ontario, Canada

  2. 2

    McMaster University, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    The American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) grew out of the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Environment. At that world conference, governments requested the establishment of a global monitoring program that could determine the status and trends of key environmental issues. The GEMS/Water Program was initiated in 1976 by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO), with the assistance of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The program had the twin objectives of improving water quality monitoring and assessment capabilities in participating countries, and determining the status and trends of regional and global water quality.


  • water quality;
  • monitoring;
  • global;
  • surface water;
  • rivers;
  • lakes;
  • groundwater