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Escape Trajectory

Ecological Statistics

  1. Paolo Domenici

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vae048.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Domenici, P. 2013. Escape Trajectory . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 2.

Author Information

  1. CNR-IAMC, Oristano, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Escape responses consist of sudden accelerations as reactions to threatening stimuli and are present in most animals as a means of avoiding predation. Escape responses are currently receiving increased attention as valuable models for animal behavior, ecology, and neurobiology. The path along which an animal moves during an escape response (its escape trajectory) has attracted the interest of ecologists and behaviorists in relation to its functional role in predator–prey interactions. Escape trajectories (ETs) as considered in this article refer to the initial prey response to a predator's attack. Such a trajectory should be measured at the end of the main rotational motion present during the escape response, which usually corresponds to a specific kinematic stage of the animal's locomotion. Beyond this stage, prey may continue escaping along a zigzag path, especially if predators follow up their attack with a chase.


  • stimuli;
  • circular data;
  • avoidence;
  • binomial distrbution