Standard Article

You have free access to this content


Spatial/Temporal Modeling and Analysis

  1. Professor P. Switzer

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vak003

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Switzer, P. 2006. Kriging. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 2.

Author Information

  1. Stanford University, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (15 JAN 2013)


A spatial field is partially observed at selected sites and the goal is to infer the field at unobserved sites. This is the problem of spatial estimation, sometimes called spatial prediction. Examples of spatial fields are soil nutrient concentrations over an agricultural domain observed on a survey grid, hydrologic variables over an aquifer observed at well locations, and air quality measurements over an air basin observed at monitoring sites. Kriging is a method for converting the data into an estimate of the field together with a measure of error or uncertainty.