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Longitudinal Studies

Ecological Statistics

  1. C. B. Dean1,
  2. X. J. Hu2

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.val018.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Dean, C. B. and Hu, X. J. 2013. Longitudinal Studies . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

  2. 2

    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


A longitudinal study observes its subjects repeatedly over time. The subjects can be individuals or pre existing groups of interest, such as species and regions, and the time refers to the metameter for the occasions of observation. Longitudinal data allow one to separate cohort and time effects. This article summarizes the special features of longitudinal studies, and overviews statistical study design and data analysis in longitudinal settings.


  • generalized estimating equation;
  • joint modeling;
  • likelihood-based approach;
  • marginal model;
  • missing data and measurement error;
  • mixed effects model;
  • study design