Standard Article


Ecological Statistics

  1. Richard A. Reyment

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vam037.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Reyment, R. A. 2013. Morphometrics . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 4.

Author Information

  1. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Morphometrics is defined as the application of multivariate statistical procedures to the study of variation in morphological characteristics of organisms. As originally implemented, the analyses are based on standard measures (“distances”) spanning critical sites. A more recent introduction is concerned with quantifying outlines of organisms, the data then being a suite of arbitrary coordinate-pairs around the circumference of the object, obtained by some automatically operating digitization procedure (e.g., the Zahn-Rosskies method). Geometric morphometrics is the latest class to appear. It relies on diagnostically located “landmarks” that form the basis for superimposition of coordinate systems, visualizations by deformation grids. The first and third of these categories can, without particular difficulty, be allied with environmental indicators by appropriate techniques.


  • morphometrics;
  • multivariate statistics;
  • environmetics;
  • Kendall's shape space;
  • geometric morphometrics