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Extremes and Environmental Risk

  1. Daniela Cocchi,
  2. Carlo Trivisano

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vao022.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Cocchi, D. and Trivisano, C. 2013. Ozone . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 4.

Author Information

  1. University of Bologna, Department of Statistical Sciences, Bologna, Italy

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


After illustrating the differences between tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, ozone production from photochemical reactions is described. Remarks follow on potential damages on human health and vegetation due to ozone toxicity and the need of its control via air quality standards and guidelines. Emphasis is given to monitoring, data collection and statistical analysis of ozone concentrations: statistical models are becoming important for ozone analysis and can be associated to deterministic chemistry transport and meteorological models. They are able to summarize large amounts of data collected in time and space, to account for confounders, like meteorological variables, and to evaluate uncertainties due to measurement errors. Global, regional and local scales are different contexts for analysis. Bayesian methods are very flexible tools for solving non standard problems, like missing values, change of support and misalignment.

A variety of modern statistical methods useful for the analysis of ozone concentrations is reviewed: model fitting and extreme value analysis, spatio and spatio-temporal models, methods for long-term trends estimation, models for the analysis of the relationship between ozone concentrations and human health.


  • spatial models;
  • trend;
  • confounding factors;
  • effects on health;
  • ozone depletion