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Spatial Covariance

Spatial and Temporal Modeling and Analysis

  1. Paul D. Sampson

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vas040.pub2

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Sampson, P. D. 2013. Spatial Covariance . Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 5.

Author Information

  1. University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Modeling of the spatial dependence structure of environmental processes is fundamental to almost all statistical analyses of data that are sampled spatially. Such analyses address tasks such as spatial estimation (Kriging), monitoring network design (Optimal spatial design), as well as the basic scientific characterization of the second-order properties of these processes. This article reviews the literature on nonstationary spatial covariance modeling primarily under the headings of smoothing and kernel methods, basis function models, process convolution models, and spatial deformation models. This discussion raises some general issues and comments on new and forthcoming developments.


  • empirical orthogonal functions;
  • nonstationary;
  • process convolution;
  • spatial deformation;
  • variogram