Standard Article

Groundwater Remediation

Environmental Technology and Engineering

  1. Poul L. Bjerg1,
  2. Mette Broholm1,
  3. Gitte Lemming1,
  4. Gorm Heron2

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vnn114

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Bjerg, P. L., Broholm, M., Lemming, G. and Heron, G. 2013. Groundwater Remediation. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

  2. 2

    Terratherm, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


This article focuses on off-site, on-site, and in situ treatment methods for chlorinated solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon source and plume zones at contaminated sites. Physical remediation methods often include in situ contaminant mass transfer followed by an on-site treatment. Chemical and biological remediation methods provide contaminant mass destruction, which is preferable. However, physical methods such as thermal remediation technologies have shown very high efficiency within short time frames. The major challenges for chemical and biological methods are contaminations in low-permeability settings and source zones with dense nonaqueous phase liquids, which cause long remediation time frames. Finally, considerations for choice of remediation technologies and the recent development in the use of decision support tools for environmental comparison of remedial alternatives and their life cycle impacts are addressed.


  • groundwater;
  • source zone;
  • chlorinated solvents;
  • petroleum hydrocarbons;
  • remediation;
  • thermal treatment technologies;
  • chemical oxidation;
  • bioremediation;
  • reductive dechlorination;
  • natural attenuation