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Water supply and treatment

Environmental Technology and Engineering

  1. Prince Nfodzo1,
  2. Dionysios D. Dionysiou2,
  3. Hyeok Choi1

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vnn119

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Nfodzo, P., Dionysiou, D. D. and Choi, H. 2013. Water supply and treatment. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA

  2. 2

    University of Cincinnati, OH, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Human activities and freshwater pollution have impaired the supply of good quality water to majority of the world's population. It is anticipated that there will be a global water crisis by 2030 if definite measures are not taken to curtail the current trends. High population growth rate, increasing urban drift, economic growth, and climate changes are the key factors contributing to the water crisis. The development of sustainable water treatment systems with innovative approaches to planning, design, operation, and maintenance of water infrastructure is imperative, while an integrated management of water and energy can be a new paradigm shift toward sustainability. Going beyond removal of conventional contaminants using coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation–filtration processes, advanced treatment technologies including advanced oxidation, membrane separation, and activated carbon adsorption processes have been adopted to address emerging issues associated with the presence of toxic chemicals in water as well as aesthetic aspects (odor, color, and taste) of water quality. Recently, nanotechnological approaches have emerged as breakthrough technologies for improving water quality with less effort and materials. Meanwhile, more basic approaches employing the concept of water conservation, reclamation, recycle, and reuse might be a better solution to the ever increasing scarcity of good quality drinking water.


  • water treatment;
  • water reclamation;
  • water reuse;
  • water supply;
  • environmental sustainability;
  • water-energy nexus;
  • advanced oxidation;
  • membrane separation;
  • activated carbon adsorption;
  • nanotechnology