Standard Article


Ecological Statistics

  1. Alexander Wacker

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vnn132

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Wacker, A. 2013. Colimitations. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 1.

Author Information

  1. University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Understanding the interactions in resource limitations is a crucial challenge for ecological sciences. If organisms are simultaneously limited by more than one nutrient, they face a multiple resource limitation, which is often described by the term co-limitation. Though the concept of co-limitation has been successfully applied to describe nutrient-limited growth responses of plants, this concept has been poorly applied to the nutrient-limited growth of animals. This article provides essential insights into the concept of co-limitation and its different facets, in particular the differences among modeling equations.


  • multiple resource limitation;
  • essential resources;
  • substitutable resources;
  • primary producer;
  • herbivory;
  • predation;
  • animal nutrition