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Species Distribution, Monitoring Changes in

Ecological Statistics

  1. Nigel G. Yoccoz

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vnn140

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Yoccoz, N. G. 2013. Species Distribution, Monitoring Changes in. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 5.

Author Information

  1. University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


Changes in species distributions constitute strong evidence that global change is affecting ecosystems and biodiversity. Expansion of invasive species and retraction of endangered species are examples of environmental issues that need to be understood and addressed. Monitoring range shifts require that we can accurately estimate the state(s) of the system – that is, the present and past distributions – its rate of change, and assess the underlying causes. Existing monitoring programs differ in terms of data quality and coverage of the environmental space, and very few have considered different sources of errors as well as alternative explanations of observed changes. Modeling species distributions is needed to derive alternative predictions of future changes. The design of monitoring programs should assess the assumptions and the predictions of these models.


  • range shift;
  • species distribution models;
  • niche;
  • climate change;
  • invasive species;
  • alternative hypotheses