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Life-Stage Analysis

Ecological Statistics

  1. Linda J. Young

Published Online: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/9780470057339.vnn146

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

Encyclopedia of Environmetrics

How to Cite

Young, L. J. 2013. Life-Stage Analysis. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics. 3.

Author Information

  1. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JAN 2013


For animals with well-defined life stages, life stage analysis may be used to estimate properties of the stages, such as the total number of individuals that enter the stage, the mean time spent in a life stage, the probability of surviving each life stage, the mean time to entering each life stage, or the unit time survival rate. In life tables, population survival and mortality are displayed in a systematic manner and may be either age specific or time specific. The Kiritani–Nakasuji–Manly method is perhaps the most widely used method for estimating time unit and stage survival rates and stage duration. Key stages may be defined to be those life stages exhibiting the most variation or those having the greatest effect on the variation in the numbers entering the final stage. Given the structure of a continuously reproducing population in one time period, matrix population models are used to estimate the numbers in each life stage during the next time period or at some more distant time.


  • life tables;
  • life stages;
  • survival rates;
  • cohort analysis;
  • key factor analysis;
  • stage-structured populations;
  • matrix population models