Chapter 18. Gulf War Syndrome

  1. Timothy C. Marrs OBE, MD, DSc, FRCP, FRCPath2,3,4,
  2. Robert L. Maynard CBE, FRCP, FRCPath5 and
  3. Frederick R. Sidell MD6
  1. Simon Wessely and
  2. Mathew Hotopf

Published Online: 2 APR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470060032.ch18

Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment, Second Edition

Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment, Second Edition

How to Cite

Wessely, S. and Hotopf, M. (2007) Gulf War Syndrome, in Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment, Second Edition (eds T. C. Marrs, R. L. Maynard and F. R. Sidell), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470060032.ch18

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Edentox Associates, Pinehurst, Four Elms Road, Edenbridge, Kent TN8 6AQ, UK

  2. 3

    National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre) and West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital, Birmingham B18 7QH, UK

  3. 4

    Lancashire School of Health and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE, UK

  4. 5

    Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ, UK

  5. 6

    US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5400, USA

Author Information

  1. Institute of Psychiatry, King's Centre for Military Health Research, Weston Education Centre, King's College London, Cutcombe Road, London SE5 9RJ, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 2 APR 2007
  2. Published Print: 23 MAR 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470013595

Online ISBN: 9780470060032



  • Gulf War Syndrome;
  • Department of Defense (DOD) and Medical Assessment Programme (MAP);
  • media and public Gulf Health effect;
  • Gulf War illness - post-conflict ill-health;
  • friendly fire


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • The 1991 Gulf War

  • Getting our Terminologies Right

  • The Early Studies

  • The Epidemiological Studies

  • Is There a Gulf War Syndrome?

  • The Position Elsewhere

  • What Might be Going On?

  • Is Gulf War Illness the Result of Biological Hazards in the Gulf?

  • Recall Bias

  • Is Gulf War Illness a Modern Manifestation of Post-Conflict Ill-Health?

  • Gulf War Syndrome Can be Found in People Who Have Never Been to the Gulf or Served in the Armed Forces

  • Attributions and Explanations

  • Attributions and Explanations: The Gulf War and Modernity

  • Distrust, Conspiracy and Confidence

  • Friendly Fire

  • Questions Remaining

  • Gulf War Syndrome: The Post-Modern Illness

  • Conclusions

  • References