Standard Article

CARVER+Shock: Food Defense Software Tool

Part 3. Key Application Areas

1. Agriculture and Food Supply

  1. Phillip Pohl1,
  2. Eric Lindgren1,
  3. Cecelia Williams1,
  4. Jeffrey Danneels1,
  5. Robert Browitt1,
  6. Lee Eubanks1,
  7. Madison Link1,
  8. Regina Hunter1,
  9. Don Kautter2,
  10. Jon Woody2,
  11. Cory Bryant2

Published Online: 12 FEB 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470087923.hhs402

Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security

Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security

How to Cite

Pohl, P., Lindgren, E., Williams, C., Danneels, J., Browitt, R., Eubanks, L., Link, M., Hunter, R., Kautter, D., Woody, J. and Bryant, C. 2010. CARVER+Shock: Food Defense Software Tool. Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security. 3:1:1–10.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  2. 2

    Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 12 FEB 2010


The acronym CARVER represents the steps in a threat analysis exercise: Criticality, Accessibility, Recognizability, Vulnerability, Effect, and Recuperability. The CARVER+Shock software was developed as an easy-to-use tool for defending food production against malevolent attacks. Shock is added to incorporate the intangible focus of a terrorist in frightening a targeted group. The software uses the CARVER targeting methodology to identify components in a production process that are best suited for security improvements and recommends mitigative steps to improve defense. The food defense software is described and demonstrated on hypothetical yogurt and apple product food-production processes. Two of the algorithms used to generate scores in the analysis are presented and the assumptions listed. The calculated scores are compared and discussed. Version 1.0 of the software is available free from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website. Software upgrades for agriculture and for retail or restaurants analyses are being developed for release in 2009 along with Version 2.0.


  • food defense;
  • food terrorism;
  • food protection;
  • security software;
  • bioterrorism