Chapter 2. Observations and Their Analysis

  1. Charles D. Ghilani Ph.D. Professor of Engineering1 and
  2. Paul R. Wolf Ph.D. Professor Emeritus2

Published Online: 27 MAR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch2

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Ghilani, C. D. and Wolf, P. R. (2006) Observations and Their Analysis, in Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch2

Author Information

  1. 1

    Surveying Engineering Program, Pennsylvania State University, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 MAR 2007
  2. Published Print: 24 MAY 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471697282

Online ISBN: 9780470121498

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Keywords:

  • simple graphical analyses;
  • observations and their analysis;
  • graphical representation of data;
  • central tendency measures;
  • sample variance derivation

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Sample versus Population

  • Range and Median

  • Graphical Representation of Data

  • Numerical Methods of Describing Data

  • Measures of Central Tendency

  • Additional Definitions

  • Alternative Formula for Determining Variance

  • Numerical Examples

  • Derivation of the Sample Variance (Bessel's Correction)

  • Programming

  • Problems