Chapter 20. Constraint Equations

  1. Charles D. Ghilani Ph.D. Professor of Engineering1 and
  2. Paul R. Wolf Ph.D. Professor Emeritus2

Published Online: 27 MAR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch20

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Ghilani, C. D. and Wolf, P. R. (2006) Constraint Equations, in Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch20

Author Information

  1. 1

    Surveying Engineering Program, Pennsylvania State University, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 MAR 2007
  2. Published Print: 24 MAY 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471697282

Online ISBN: 9780470121498

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Keywords:

  • control station coordinate adjustment;
  • constraint equations;
  • solution by elimination of constraints;
  • Helmert's method and constraints;
  • enforcing constraints through weighting

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Adjustment of Control Station Coordinates

  • Holding Control Station Coordinates and Directions of Lines Fixed in a Trilateration Adjustment

  • Helmert's Method

  • Redundancies in a Constrained Adjustment

  • Enforcing Constraints through Weighting

  • Problems