Chapter 7. Error Propagation in Angle and Distance Observations

  1. Charles D. Ghilani Ph.D. Professor of Engineering1 and
  2. Paul R. Wolf Ph.D. Professor Emeritus2

Published Online: 27 MAR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch7

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Ghilani, C. D. and Wolf, P. R. (2006) Error Propagation in Angle and Distance Observations, in Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch7

Author Information

  1. 1

    Surveying Engineering Program, Pennsylvania State University, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 MAR 2007
  2. Published Print: 24 MAY 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471697282

Online ISBN: 9780470121498

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Keywords:

  • error propagation in angle and distance observations;
  • reading errors;
  • pointing errors and angle observation;
  • target centering and instrument centering errors;
  • estimated errors in angular misclosure traverse check

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Error Sources in Horizontal Angles

  • Reading Errors

  • Pointing Errors

  • Estimated Pointing and Reading Errors with Total Stations

  • Target Centering Errors

  • Instrument Centering Errors

  • Effects of Leveling Errors in Angle Observations

  • Numerical Example of Combined Error Propagation in a Single Horizontal Angle

  • Use of Estimated Errors to Check Angular Misclosure in a Traverse

  • Errors in Astronomical Observations for an Azimuth

  • Errors in Electronic Distance Observations

  • Use of Computational Software

  • Problems