Chapter 9. Error Propagation in Elevation Determination

  1. Charles D. Ghilani Ph.D. Professor of Engineering1 and
  2. Paul R. Wolf Ph.D. Professor Emeritus2

Published Online: 27 MAR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch9

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition

How to Cite

Ghilani, C. D. and Wolf, P. R. (2006) Error Propagation in Elevation Determination, in Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis, Fourth Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470121498.ch9

Author Information

  1. 1

    Surveying Engineering Program, Pennsylvania State University, USA

  2. 2

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 MAR 2007
  2. Published Print: 24 MAY 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471697282

Online ISBN: 9780470121498

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Keywords:

  • systematic errors in differential leveling;
  • error propagation in elevation determination;
  • random errors in differential leveling;
  • error propagation in trigonometric leveling;
  • uncompensated systematic error

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Systematic Errors in Differential Leveling

  • Random Errors in Differential Leveling

  • Error Propagation in Trigonometric Leveling

  • Problems