Chapter 24. Observations on Industry Experiences with Low-Cobalt/No-Cobalt Systems

  1. William J. Smothers
  1. Archie E. Farr

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470291078.ch24

Proceedings of the 42nd Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 2, Issue 3/4

Proceedings of the 42nd Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 2, Issue 3/4

How to Cite

Farr, A. E. (1981) Observations on Industry Experiences with Low-Cobalt/No-Cobalt Systems, in Proceedings of the 42nd Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 2, Issue 3/4 (ed W. J. Smothers), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470291078.ch24

Author Information

  1. O. Hommel Co., P.O. Box 475, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15230

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1981

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470373880

Online ISBN: 9780470291078

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Keywords:

  • porcelain;
  • enamel;
  • pickle;
  • electrolytes;
  • trioxide

Summary

The porcelain enameling industry's response to the high cost of cobalt oxide is described. The cost impact on this essential ingredient in ground coat frits is noted. Industry experiences related to the use of low-cobalt and cobalt-free ground coat systems are reported.