9. A Comparative Evaluation of Orthopaedic Cements in Human Whole Blood

  1. Mineo Mizuno
  1. N. Axén1,
  2. N.-O. Ahnfelt1,
  3. T. Persson1,
  4. L. Hennansson1,
  5. J. Sanchez2 and
  6. R. Larson2

Published Online: 27 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470291269.ch9

Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 6

Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 6

How to Cite

Axén, N., Ahnfelt, N.-O., Persson, T., Hennansson, L., Sanchez, J. and Larson, R. (2005) A Comparative Evaluation of Orthopaedic Cements in Human Whole Blood, in Advances in Bioceramics and Biocomposites: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 6 (ed M. Mizuno), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470291269.ch9

Author Information

  1. 1

    Doxa AB Axel Johanssons gata 4–6 SE-751 26 Uppsala Sweden

  2. 2

    Uppsala University The Rudbeck Laboratory SE-751 85 Uppsala Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2005

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781574982367

Online ISBN: 9780470291269

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Keywords:

  • calcium;
  • thrombosis;
  • equipment;
  • phosphate;
  • elevation

Summary

The dotting behaviour of some orthopaedic cements has been evaluated in a model system with human whole blood. The interest in the hemocompatibility of bone cements has increased because of claimed risks for adverse coagulation caused by material entering the blood system as the materials are injected into orthopaedic cavities.

This work investigates four orthopaedic cements: A polymethylmetacrylate (traditional bone cement) and three calcium-based ceramic cements, using a close circuit Chandler loop model with the inner surfaces of the PVC tubing coated by heparin. The model exposes the test materials to fresh human whole blood. A special procedure was developed to evaluate solidifying pastes in the Chandler loop model. This procedure covers a section of the inner wall of the tubing with a thin layer of non-cured cement paste. Thereafter the tubing is filled with fresh whole blood and the loop is closed. The loops are rotated at 32 rpm in a 37°C water bath for 60 minutes. The cements are curing in contact with the flowing blood.

After the incubation, the blood and the materials surfaces were investigated with special attention to clotting reactions. Blood samples were collected and supplemented with EDTA for cell count analysis. Blood from the loops was centrifuged to generate plasma for analysis of TAT, C3a and TCC complement marker. It is concluded that the clotting behaviour of the PMMA and the Ca-aluminate materials is considerably lower than that of the calcium phosphate and sulphate materials in these tests.