23. A Comparison of Ceramic Materials Dynamically Impacted by Tungsten Carbide Spheres

  1. Jeffrey J. Swab
  1. M. J. Normandia,
  2. S. R. Martin,
  3. D. E. Mackenzie and
  4. B. A. Rickter

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470291276.ch23

Advances in Ceramic Armor: A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 7

Advances in Ceramic Armor: A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 7

How to Cite

Normandia, M. J., Martin, S. R., Mackenzie, D. E. and Rickter, B. A. (2005) A Comparison of Ceramic Materials Dynamically Impacted by Tungsten Carbide Spheres, in Advances in Ceramic Armor: A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 7 (ed J. J. Swab), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470291276.ch23

Author Information

  1. U. S. Army Research Laboratory Armor Mechanics Branch Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2005

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781574982374

Online ISBN: 9780470291276

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Keywords:

  • silicon carbide;
  • tungsten carbide;
  • velocity;
  • numerical simulation tools;
  • yield strength

Summary

Ballistic comparisons of several armor-grade, hot-pressed ceramics are made using data obtained from dynamic impact experiments with tungsten carbide (WC-6%Co) spheres. Titanium Diboride, Silicon Carbide, Tungsten Carbide and Boron Carbide were tested and all ceramics show the same three distinct groupings, characterized by impact velocity. A lower velocity regime, to as high as 500 m/s, characterized by little or no visual surface damage (other than ring cracks), while significant sub-surface damage is generated (see companion papers). A higher velocity regime is characterized by inelastic impactor response, yield or shattering, which typically occurs above 1 km/s. The damage is evident by craters that form and the impactor penetrates the damaged material. This regime is representative of typical armor applications. An intermediate velocity range exists, characterized as an onset to penetration where the damage results in craters that are not necessarily fully developed, but where the impactor remains elastic. The penetration response curves generated for each of these materials are compared on an areal density basis. Less areal density penetrated at a given impact velocity implies greater target resistance to penetration.

The rate of crater depth with increasing velocity is governed by target properties related to ballistic penetration resistance, which is typically used within analytic penetration formulations. Penetration resistance may be obtained from correlation with the data. This is a lumped parameter that is related to the constitutive behavior of comminuted ceramic material, which is typically assumed to behave as a granular material with a pressure-dependent Mohr-Coulomb behavior. The slope of the pressure-shear dependence can be approximated from the testing technique.