25. Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Ceramic Armor: Fundamentals

  1. Jeffrey J. Swab
  1. Raymond Brennan1,
  2. Richard Haber2,
  3. Dale Niesz3,
  4. James McCauley4 and
  5. Mahesh Bhardwaj5

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470291276.ch25

Advances in Ceramic Armor: A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 7

Advances in Ceramic Armor: A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 7

How to Cite

Brennan, R., Haber, R., Niesz, D., McCauley, J. and Bhardwaj, M. (2008) Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Ceramic Armor: Fundamentals, in Advances in Ceramic Armor: A Collection of Papers Presented at the 29th International Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites, January 23-28, 2005, Cocoa Beach, Florida, Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 26, Number 7 (ed J. J. Swab), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470291276.ch25

Author Information

  1. 1

    Rutgers University 607 Taylor Road Piscataway, NJ 08854–8065

  2. 2

    Rutgers University 607 Taylor Road Piscataway, NJ 08854–8065

  3. 3

    Rutgers University 607 Taylor Road Piscataway, NJ 08854–8065

  4. 4

    US Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005–5066

  5. 5

    The Ultran Group 1020 Boal Avenue Boalsburg, PA 16827, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2005

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9781574982374

Online ISBN: 9780470291276

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Keywords:

  • anomalous defects;
  • fracture;
  • cost-effectiveness;
  • ceramic armor materials;
  • elastic properties

Summary

Anomalous defects are known to initiate fracture in ceramic armor during quasi-static testing. Results will show the feasibility of using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques as a means of locating anomalous defects within dense, ceramic materials used for armor applications. Implementation of a cost-effective NDE technique can reduce ballistic performance scatter by establishing some “flaw-population/flaw-size” threshold level above which the part will be rejected and below which it will be accepted. High frequency ultrasound techniques will be used to locate and identify defects within ceramic armor materials.

High frequency ultrasound NDE (generally >10 MHz) is based on the relationship between acoustic measurements and material properties. Ultrasound wave velocities are directly dependent on physical characteristics of the medium through which they are transferred. Reflection, transmission, and scattering of ultrasonic waves can be studied to detect discontinuities and calculate elastic properties. This technique will provide crucial information about critical flaw sizes and populations in ceramic armor, serving as a major step for nondestructively gauging the success and failure of commercial armor plates.