Chapter 62. Effect of Heat Treatment on Crystal Structure and Wear Performance of Carbon-Carbon Composites

  1. Rajan Tandon,
  2. Andrew Wereszczak and
  3. Edgar Lara-Curzio
  1. Dale E. Wittmer1,
  2. Soydan Ozcan1,2,
  3. Milan Krkroska1,2 and
  4. Peter Filip1,2

Published Online: 27 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470291313.ch62

Mechanical Properties and Performance of Engineering Ceramics II: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 27, Issue 2

Mechanical Properties and Performance of Engineering Ceramics II: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 27, Issue 2

How to Cite

Wittmer, D. E., Ozcan, S., Krkroska, M. and Filip, P. (2006) Effect of Heat Treatment on Crystal Structure and Wear Performance of Carbon-Carbon Composites, in Mechanical Properties and Performance of Engineering Ceramics II: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 27, Issue 2 (eds R. Tandon, A. Wereszczak and E. Lara-Curzio), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470291313.ch62

Author Information

  1. 1

    Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL

  2. 2

    Center for Advanced Friction Studies. Southern Illinois University, Carbondale. IL

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470080528

Online ISBN: 9780470291313

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Keywords:

  • graphitization;
  • enlissivity;
  • pyronieters;
  • crystallize;
  • center for advanced friction (CAFS)

Summary

The processing temperature of a carbon–carbon (C/C) composite controls the extent of graphitization and crystal size. Often times the processing temperatures in industrial furnaces with graphite hot zones are not known with great accuracy because of the changes in emissivity with increasing temperature. Temperatures are controlled by pyrometers and the pyrometers are calibrated to be accurate only for a very narrow temperature range. The wear of graphite is also known to be dependent on many factors, of which crystallize size and extend of graphitization are two of those factors, in order to study the effect of heat treatment on the crystal structure and wear performance of commercial C/C composites, composite samples were heat treated at temperatures ranging from 1800°C to 2400°C in Ar. Following heat treating, a sample was ground from the surface of each sample and mixed with 99.99% pure Ni powder as an internal standard. X–ray diffraction was performed using the major peaks for graphite (the (002) for 2H) and Ni (111). The full–width half maximum for each diffraction peak was used to determine the crystal size, and the peak shift for the graphite (002) was determined based on the Ni internal standard. The corrected d spacing for the (002) plane were then determined. The sub–scale dynamometer at the Center for Advanced Friction (CAFS) studies was used to perform wear testing of each of the carbon–carbon composites, following heat treatment. The results were then compared with the crystallographic information obtained from X–ray diffraction and TEM.