Chapter 6. Evaluation of Water Hardness Tests for Detection of Divalent Cation Concentration

  1. William M. Carty
  1. Peter Kupinski and
  2. William M. Carty

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470294611.ch6

Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 21, Issue 2

Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 21, Issue 2

How to Cite

Kupinski, P. and Carty, W. M. (2000) Evaluation of Water Hardness Tests for Detection of Divalent Cation Concentration, in Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 21, Issue 2 (ed W. M. Carty), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470294611.ch6

Author Information

  1. NYS CACT – Whiteware Research Center, School of Ceramic Engineering and Materials Science, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, Alfred, New York

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2000

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470375679

Online ISBN: 9780470294611

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Keywords:

  • water hardness tests;
  • divalent cation;
  • concentration controls;
  • salt concentration;
  • suspensions

Summary

The interactive efects of monovalent and divalent salts on suspension rheology of a typical whiteware body were investigated. Salts were chosen that were representative of ions commonly found in industrial whiteware filtrates. It was determined that there were only additive interactive efects and that divalent cations dominate the flocculation behavior of whiteware suspensions. Water hardness tests were examined and compared to standard chemical analysis techniques in order to determine a fast and accurate method for measuring divalent cation concentrations in industrial baroid filtrate.