Chapter 11. Formulating Porcelain Bodies with Borax Auxiliary Flux

  1. William M. Carty
  1. Mark D. Noirot

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470294734.ch11

Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 2

Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 2

How to Cite

Noirot, M. D. (2002) Formulating Porcelain Bodies with Borax Auxiliary Flux, in Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 2 (ed W. M. Carty), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470294734.ch11

Author Information

  1. U.S. Borax, Inc., Valencia, California

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2002

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470375778

Online ISBN: 9780470294734

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Keywords:

  • porcelain bodies;
  • borax auxiliary flux;
  • tableware;
  • electrical insulators;
  • sanitaryware

Summary

Traditional porcelain bodies used for tableware, electrical insulators, and sanitaryware can be formulated with a small fraction of synthetic zinc or calcium borate, resulting in a substantial reduction in firing temperature and a broadening of the useful firing range. The relationship to temperature was explored with a gradient firing technique where samples were examined for shrinkage, porosity, density, and microstructure over a broad temperature range (about 200°C). A designed formulation experiment was used to help create a model describing temperature efects. Strength testing was also carried out on rods fired at discrete temperatures. Benefits to reformulating include reduced energy consumption, reduced production of combustion gases, longer kiln and refractory service life. and potential increased capacity and yield.