Chapter 2. Determination of Ceramic Tile Scratch Hardness: Use of a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer

  1. William M. Carty
  1. Agustin Escardino,
  2. Arnaldo Moreno and
  3. Jesus Ibanez

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470294734.ch2

Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 2

Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 2

How to Cite

Escardino, A., Moreno, A. and Ibanez, J. (2008) Determination of Ceramic Tile Scratch Hardness: Use of a Pin-on-Disk Tribometer, in Materials & Equipment/Whitewares: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 2 (ed W. M. Carty), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470294734.ch2

Author Information

  1. Instituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, Castellon, Spain

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2002

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470375778

Online ISBN: 9780470294734

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Keywords:

  • ceramic tile scratch hardness;
  • pin-on-disk tribometer;
  • ceramic tiles;
  • mohs scale minerals;
  • glaze appearance

Summary

Ceramic tile scratch hardness is usually determined by the method set out in the old EN 101 standard “Ceramic Tiles: Determinotion of Scratch Hardness of Surface According to Mohs.” Though not included in the new ISO standards on ceramic tiles, the test has not been replaced by any other scratch hardness measuring method and still finds widespread use. The test is based on visual assessment of scratches produced by Mohs scale minerals under given lighting conditions. Test results are conditioned by glaze appearance (color, gloss, texture, etc.), so that the EN 101 method provides only a relative reflection of surface behavior on exposure to scratching, without actually quantifying a physical property. In view of these drawbacks, scratch tests were preformed using a pin-on-disk tribometer instead of Mohs scale minerals. The apparatus is generally used to determine the wear resistance of technical ceramics and involves producing wear by friction in a test specimen with a spherical abrader, The present study was conducted with a CSEM pin-on-disk tribometer, using a standard Vickers tip instead of the system's original spherical abrader. The minimum load required to produce visible scratching was assessed for various glazes by visual evaluation and observation on an optical microscope. The results were compared with Mohs test data. The dependence of the results on glaze surface properties (gloss and roughness) were also studied.