Chapter 99. Low–Temperature Anodic Bonding Facilitated by Lithium–Exchanged Sodium Borosilicate Glass

  1. Hau-Tay Lin and
  2. Mrityunjay Singh
  1. Chad S. Watson1,
  2. Deidre A. Hirschfeld1 and
  3. W. Kent Schubert2

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470294758.ch99

26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: B: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 4

26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: B: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 4

How to Cite

Watson, C. S., Hirschfeld, D. A. and Schubert, W. K. (2002) Low–Temperature Anodic Bonding Facilitated by Lithium–Exchanged Sodium Borosilicate Glass, in 26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: B: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 23, Issue 4 (eds H.-T. Lin and M. Singh), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470294758.ch99

Author Information

  1. 1

    New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Socorro, New Mexico 87801

  2. 2

    Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 2002

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470375792

Online ISBN: 9780470294758

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Keywords:

  • microelectro-mechanical system;
  • bonding temperatures;
  • anodic bonding;
  • sodium borosilicate;
  • electrostatic

Summary

A critical issue during the hermetic packaging of microelectro-mechanical system (MEMS) devices has been the need for lower glass-to-silicon bonding temperatures. Ion exchange, a technique traditionally used to modify the mechanical and optical properties of glasses, has been employed to reduce the temperature typically required to anodically bond glass to silicon. Lithium ion exchange techniques were used to lower the anodic bonding temperature to as low as 230°C using a point-cathode configuration and to 200°C using a commercial bonder.