Chapter 17. Joining Steel Sheet for Enameling Applications

  1. John B. Wachtman Jr.
  1. Y. Adonyi and
  2. K. G. Brickner

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470313275.ch17

Proceedings of the 52nd Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 12, Issue 5/6

Proceedings of the 52nd Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 12, Issue 5/6

How to Cite

Adonyi, Y. and Brickner, K. G. (1991) Joining Steel Sheet for Enameling Applications, in Proceedings of the 52nd Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 12, Issue 5/6 (ed J. B. Wachtman), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470313275.ch17

Author Information

  1. US Steel, a Division of USX Corporation Technical Center Monroeville, PA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1991

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470375075

Online ISBN: 9780470313275

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Keywords:

  • joining steel sheet;
  • enameling applications;
  • washer baskets;
  • enameling quality steel sheets;
  • USs research

Summary

In manufacturing of appliance components such as washer baskets, the quality of the resistance-seam welds can often negatively affect the performance of the subsequent cold forming and enameling operations. The lack of weld integrity can cause failure during the basket expansion or edge forming operations. Entrapment of various inclusions in the insufficiently welded overlap (“flap”) can cause black specks and outgassing imperfections in the final enamel coating. In order to improve the resistance-seam weld quality, a systematic welding parameter optimization study was performed on enameling quality steel sheets. The weld acceptance criteria were based on the extent of the welded and resolidified material at the faying surfaces (i.e., weld “nugget” growth). The main parameters varied were the sheet overlap size, electrode wheel force, and welding current. Evaluation of the welds was performed using transverse sections which were subsequently examined using optic and electron microscopy. It was found that a transition from a diffusion-bond type weld to a sound weld nugget can be made through a reduction of the overlap width and electrode force. Excessive temperatures at the weld surfaces can cause welding electrode melting and copper contamination which, together with excessive oxidation, represent further impediments for the enameling operation. Reduction of surface oxidation was achieved by using water flooding of the sheet surface adjacent to the wheel electrodes during welding. The condition of the auxiliary tooling (electrode wheels, “Z” bars, nose pieces) was found to affect the extent of sheet edge and weld surface contamination.