Chapter 17. Black Specks in Porcelain Enamel: The Role of Forming Compound, Cleaner, and Steel Surface Condition

  1. John B. Wachtman Jr.
  1. Donald Fisher1,
  2. Robert Reid1,
  3. Holger F. Evele2 and
  4. Donald Sauder3

Published Online: 28 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470314142.ch17

Proceedings of the 54th Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 5/6

Proceedings of the 54th Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 5/6

How to Cite

Fisher, D., Reid, R., Evele, H. F. and Sauder, D. (1993) Black Specks in Porcelain Enamel: The Role of Forming Compound, Cleaner, and Steel Surface Condition, in Proceedings of the 54th Porcelain Enamel Institute Technical Forum: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 5/6 (ed J. B. Wachtman), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470314142.ch17

Author Information

  1. 1

    Detrex Corporation Redford, MI 48239

  2. 2

    Ferro Corporation Cleveland, OH 44105

  3. 3

    Frigidaire Company Springfield, TN 37172

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1993

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470375259

Online ISBN: 9780470314142

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Keywords:

  • porcelain;
  • substrate;
  • solutions;
  • conclude;
  • definitive

Summary

A study involving two-coat/one-fire porcelain enamels in both laboratory and implant conditions is described. The relative impact of forming compound, cleaner, and condition of substrate on the formation of black specks is reported