Chapter 48. Stress Analysis in Engineering Ceramics and Refractories
- John B. Wachtman Jr.
Published Online: 28 MAR 2008
Copyright © 1993 The American Ceramic Society
Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, Part 1 of 2: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 7/8
How to Cite
Sinnema, S., Kranendonk, W. G. T. and De Boer, J. (1993) Stress Analysis in Engineering Ceramics and Refractories, in Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Composites and Advanced Ceramic Materials, Part 1 of 2: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 14, Issue 7/8 (ed J. B. Wachtman), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470314180.ch48
- Published Online: 28 MAR 2008
- Published Print: 1 JAN 1993
Print ISBN: 9780470375266
Online ISBN: 9780470314180
- thermal spalling;
- mechanical load;
- specific properties;
- ceramic materials
Failure of refractory materials by an external load or thermal spalling is an important phenomenon. In the case of vital components in industrial installations, the consequences can be far reaching. Consequently, predicting material behavior under extreme thermal and mechanical load is a necessity. A model based on finite element method software has been developed and successfully applied to several critical lining positions of furnaces in the integrated steel plant of Hoogovens IJmuiden.
The software has been optimized for the specific properties of porous material. Material characterization, simulative laboratory measurement, and measurements in the plant were part of the development.
The model has also been applied to engineered ceramic materials and proved to be a powerful and practical tool in designing components.
Although the model is very useful in designing, only macroscopic stress states can be calculated. To perform calculations on a microscopic scale, more knowledge about the material is needed. The distribution of flaws within the material plays an important role in predicting the reliability. Statistical parameters have to be determined in material characterization.
On the other hand, the history of the fabricated materials is very important.
During fabrication, sintering and quenching processes give rise to residual stresses in the material. Even larger residual stresses appear after machining engineered ceramics. These stresses have to be taken into account in the calculations of the stress states in components.
In developing mathematical models for predicting lifetime behavior of these classes of materials, residual stresses must be taken into account. Furthermore, material characterization and stress analysis (e.g., X-ray diffraction) and simulative laboratory measurements form an essential part of an integrated approach in determining stresses and performing life predictions for ceramic materials.