Chapter 15. Minimization of NOx Emissions with Improved Oxy-Fuel Combustion: Controlled Pulsated Combustion

  1. John B Wachtman Jr.
  1. Sophie Drogue1,
  2. Shannon Breininger2 and
  3. Roberto Rurz3

Published Online: 28 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470314401.ch15

A Collection of Papers Presented at the 54th Conference on Glass Problems: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 15, Issue 2

A Collection of Papers Presented at the 54th Conference on Glass Problems: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 15, Issue 2

How to Cite

Drogue, S., Breininger, S. and Rurz, R. (2008) Minimization of NOx Emissions with Improved Oxy-Fuel Combustion: Controlled Pulsated Combustion, in A Collection of Papers Presented at the 54th Conference on Glass Problems: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 15, Issue 2 (ed J. B. Wachtman), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470314401.ch15

Author Information

  1. 1

    Air Liquide Centre de Recherche Claude Delorme Jouy en Josas France

  2. 2

    Air Liquide Chicago Research Center Countryside, IL 60525

  3. 3

    Air Liquide Applied Technology Center Countryside, IL 60525

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1994

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470375303

Online ISBN: 9780470314401

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Keywords:

  • oxy-fuel combustion;
  • nitrogen;
  • noncryogenic oxygen supply;
  • manufacturing processes;
  • recirculation

Summary

Oxy-fuel combustion has been recognized as an effective method for reduction of NOx emissions. Reduction in NOx beyond that realized with oxy-fuel combustion may be desired because of nitrogen coming from sources other than the combustion air, such as an uncontrolled influx of noncombustion air in older melters, an unusually high nitrogen content in the natural gas supply, nitrogen contained in a noncryogenic oxygen supply, niter in batch, or when optimized NOx reduction will provide emissions credits of use elsewhere. Recognizing this, Air Liquide has worked to improve on the emissions reductions realized by oxy-fuel combustion. We have found that by pulsating the combustion mixture in the flame between rich and lean, NOx generation can be reduced below levels seen with conventional oxy-fuel combustion. The pulsation is created by mechanically varying the flow rates in both the oxygen and fuel lines. In laboratory tests with 20- and 50-kW burners, the pulsating combustion technique produced a reduction of up to 90% of the residual NOx after conversion to conventional oxy-fuel combustion. On a pilot scale, with a 1-MW burner, 50% of the residual NOx after oxy-fuel conversion was reduced when one of the gases was fluctuated. Up to 75% reduction of residual NOx was seen when both gases were simultaneously pulsed.