Chapter 27. Measurement of Naturally Occurring Radioactivity in Refractories: Analytical Methods for the Workplace
- John B. Wachtman Jr.
Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
Copyright © 1995 The American Ceramic Society
A Collection of Papers Presented at the 96th Annual Meeting and the 1994 Fall Meetings of the Materials & Equipment/Whitewares/Refractory Ceramics/Basic Science: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 16, Issue 1
How to Cite
Kelly, P. and Dehmel, J.-C. (1995) Measurement of Naturally Occurring Radioactivity in Refractories: Analytical Methods for the Workplace, in A Collection of Papers Presented at the 96th Annual Meeting and the 1994 Fall Meetings of the Materials & Equipment/Whitewares/Refractory Ceramics/Basic Science: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 16, Issue 1 (ed J. B. Wachtman), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470314616.ch27
- Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
- Published Print: 1 JAN 1995
Print ISBN: 9780470375341
Online ISBN: 9780470314616
Many materials that originate in the earth contain small but measurable quantities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), principally members of the natural uranium and thorium decay series. Some refractory products, particularly those containing high-grade alumina bauxite or zircon, also contain NORM radionuclides at elevated levels that vary depending on the material's origin and grade. The presence of these materials has regulatory implications and must be correctly determined to ensure protection of personnel and the environment. This paper presents an overview of three approaches to measuring NORM radionuclides. The first one involves simple screening techniques with portable survey equipment that are appropriate for radiation surveys in the workplace. The second approach addresses equipment that is slightly more sophisticated than hand-held survey meters, yet still affordable. This equipment would be suitable for bench-top use within a manufacturing facility. The third approach discusses the use of sophisticated, computer-based radiometric equipment, suitable for a commercial radioanalytical laboratory. While these methodologies vary in their detection capabilities, convenience, and cost, this paper presents an approach that integrates them in a comprehensive, cost-effective program to monitor NORM in the refractory industry. It also presents the training requirements and approximate costs associated with implementing these protocols.