Chapter 5. Research in Esthetics Related to Ceramic Systems

  1. William Smothers
  1. William J. O'Brien

Published Online: 26 MAR 2008

DOI: 10.1002/9780470320259.ch5

Proceedings of Conference on Recent Developments in Dental Ceramics: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 6, Issue 1/2

Proceedings of Conference on Recent Developments in Dental Ceramics: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 6, Issue 1/2

How to Cite

O'Brien, W. J. (1985) Research in Esthetics Related to Ceramic Systems, in Proceedings of Conference on Recent Developments in Dental Ceramics: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 6, Issue 1/2 (ed W. Smothers), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470320259.ch5

Author Information

  1. School of Dentistry University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 26 MAR 2008
  2. Published Print: 1 JAN 1985

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470374245

Online ISBN: 9780470320259

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Keywords:

  • natural teeth;
  • esthetic dental materials;
  • colorimeter sensitivitv;
  • dental porcelain;
  • chromoscan colorimeter

Summary

Recently, major progress has been made toward an understanding of the optical phenomena associated with the appearance of esthetic dental materials. The most important advance involves the application of diffuse reflectance theory and the Kubelka-Munk equations to unifying the measurements of color and translucency. The Kubelka-Munk equation for the reflectance, R, at a given wavelength for a translucent layer of thickness X, and a background of reflectance, RG is [equations] where S is the scattering coefficient and a and b are constants. Using this equation and reflectance measurements, the translucency of dental porcelains has been measured. Also the effects of backgrounds (e. g. opaque porcelains) have been assessed. Other areas of research include the gloss and the fluorescences of porcelains. The gloss of restorative materials has been studied and found to be of major importance in matching tooth structure. The fluorescence of porcelains with rare earth additions to replace uranium compounds closely matches natural enamel. The results of these studies have introduced quantitative parameters into the process of designing new materials.