Chapter 7. Water Model Experiment of the Refractory-Lined Lance to Inject Oxygen into a Molten Iron Bath
- William Smothers
Published Online: 28 MAR 2008
Copyright © 1986 The American Ceramic Society, Inc.
Applications of Refractories: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 7, Issue 1/2
How to Cite
Kurata, K. (1986) Water Model Experiment of the Refractory-Lined Lance to Inject Oxygen into a Molten Iron Bath, in Applications of Refractories: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, Volume 7, Issue 1/2 (ed W. Smothers), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470320310.ch7
- Published Online: 28 MAR 2008
- Published Print: 1 JAN 1986
Print ISBN: 9780470374443
Online ISBN: 9780470320310
- thermal spalling;
- full-dip method
Recently the pretreatment. such as desiliconization or dephosphorization, of hot metal from blast furnaces has become more popular. As oxidizing agent, iron oxide or oxygen gas is commonly used, but oxygen is sometimes preferred to avoid the temperature decrease of hot metal and/or for metallurgical reasons. In such cases, lances are used under extremely severe conditions, and refractory materials to meet such operating conditions need to be developed. The authors first investigated how used lances were worn to estimate their wear mechanism and then made some water model experiments to check the mechanism and to do some improvements. The major causes of the wear were erosion around gas outlet nozzles and falling off of castable lining due to cracking. The former is found to be caused by pulsating back attack of injected gas bubbles and to be reduced dramatically by injecting even a small amount of solid powder together with oxygen. The latter is found to be caused by lance vibration due to the said pulsation and thermal spalling.