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Cocaine-Related Disorders

  1. Joseph E. Schumacher1,
  2. Jesse B. Milby2,
  3. David S. Batey3

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0189

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Schumacher, J. E., Milby, J. B. and Batey, D. S. 2010. Cocaine-Related Disorders. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1–2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Alabama School of Medicine

  2. 2

    University of Alabama at Birmingham

  3. 3

    University of Alabama School of Medicine

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


Cocaine, produced from the coca plant, is self-administered as a reinforcing substance in various preparations (e.g., coca leaves, coca paste, cocaine hydrochloride, and cocaine alkaloid). These preparations differ in potency due to varying levels of purity and route of administration. Chewing coca leaves or smoking of coca paste in combination with tobacco and marijuana is common among native populations in Central and South America, where coca is grown. Cocaine hydrochloride powder is usually “snorted” through the nostrils or dissolved in water and injected intravenously, and it is sometimes mixed with heroin, which is called a “speedball.” “Crack” is cocaine alkaloid that is extracted from its powdered salt by processing it into small “rocks.” Crack is easily vaporized and inhaled, and its effects have a rapid onset. Crack also can be broken down with citrus juice and injected, but it is most commonly smoked. Cocaine mixed with alcohol results in the production by the liver of a potent stimulant, Cocaethylene.


  • cocaine;
  • contingency management;
  • drug abuse;
  • crack