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Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration

  1. Jane Holmes Bernstein

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0268

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Bernstein, J. H. 2010. Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1.

Author Information

  1. Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


The Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI), now in its fifth edition, has clearly stood the test of time. Originally developed in 1967 by Beery and Buktenica, its longevity attests to its value to the clinical assessment community. This is not surprising. The VMI is an elegant test that has six critical features whose co-occurrence may be unique in currently available psychological instruments. Its ease of administration minimizes examiner error and maximizes data quality. Its format is enjoyed by (most) children, which promotes rapport and maximizes clinical utility (most children are willing to complete all items—yielding both standard and age-referenced data). It yields qualitative data, in that observation of the child's performance yields insights into psychological processes, deployment of motor skills, and response to increasing load as items increase in complexity. Its quantitative data include standard scores that permit ranking among peers and allow for monitoring of progress over time, and age-referenced achievement levels, provided for each item, that may signal diagnostically relevant within-child discrepancies in capacity when contrasted with standard scores. “Stepping Stones” age norms for tracking the progress of very young children are also provided for gross and fine motor, visual and visual motor development. Last, but by no means least, is an enormously valuable developmental trajectory reference set for each item that allows for evaluation of developmental status.


  • VMI;
  • visual motor integration;
  • development;
  • motor coordination;
  • visual perception