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  1. Lorie Ritschel

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0418

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Ritschel, L. 2010. Hope. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1–2.

Author Information

  1. Emory University School of Medicine

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


All humans are goal-directed beings by nature. Whether we seek food, jobs, social connection, relaxation, or better health, much of our behavior is organized around the pursuit of a particular end state. Successful goal attainment requires three elements: a clearly articulated goal, a plan, and motivation to put that plan into action. According to Snyder and colleagues, these three elements constitute hopeful thinking.