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Likert Scales

  1. Michael E. R. Nicholls

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0508

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Nicholls, M. E. R. 2010. Likert Scales. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1.

Author Information

  1. University of Melbourne, Australia

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


On a scale of 1 to 5, is this encyclopaedia very useful? Surveys containing questions like this one play a pivotal role in conducting research and making decisions. Likert scales are important to a broad range of disciplines and are used to assess everything from the taste of wine to the efficacy of new anaesthetic techniques. Typically, Likert scales contain five levels of response, ranging from (1) strongly agree, (2) agree, (3) neither agree nor disagree, (4) disagree and (5) strongly disagree. The number of response categories within a question can vary from 5 and 10, apparently with little effect on the construct validity of the question (Dawes, 2008). Sometimes a visual analogue scale is used on which respondents are free to place a mark anywhere along a line between the response extremes.


  • likert scale;
  • pseudoneglect;
  • response biases;
  • visual analogue scale;
  • questionnaire