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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

  1. James N. Butcher

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0573

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Butcher, J. N. 2010. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1–3.

Author Information

  1. University of Minnesota

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


The original Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed in the 1940s to assess mental health problems in psychiatric and medical settings, and it rapidly became a standard personality instrument (Hathaway & McKinley, 1940). The popularity of this true-false personality inventory was due in large part to its easy-to-use format and to the fact that the scales have well-established validity in assessing clinical symptoms and syndromes (Butcher, 2005). The MMPI underwent a major revision in the 1980s, resulting in two forms of the test: an adult version, the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), and an adolescent form, MMPI-A (Butcher et al., 1992). The MMPI-2 is a 567-item inventory comprised of symptoms, beliefs, and attitudes in adults above age 18. The MMPI-A is a 478-item version that is used for assessing young people, age 14–18. This article addresses only the MMPI-2. Together, the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A have become the most widely researched and used clinical assessment instruments in the field of personality assessment.


  • empirical scale construction;
  • MMPI-2;
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory;
  • validity scales;
  • clinical scales;
  • restructured scales (RS scales)