The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® assesses healthy personality differences by identifying 16 personality types that result from interactions among two pairs of bipolar mental functions and two pairs of bipolar attitudes, as described in C. G. Jung's theory of psychological types (1923/1971) and as interpreted and extended by Katharine C. Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers. Versions of the instrument have been published since 1943, with three manuals (Myers, 1962; Myers & McCaulley, 1985; Myers, Quenk, & Hammer, 1998). The specified mental functions and attitudes are identified using forced-choice items that elicit preferences for one or the other pole within four pairs of opposites. These four pairs are as follows: (1) opposite ways of perceiving-sensing (S), gathering information through the five senses and trusting facts and details, versus intuition (N), perceiving patterns, interconnections, and inferences and trusting future possibilities; (2) opposite ways of judgingthinking (T), reaching conclusion through logical analysis to arrive at trust, versus feeling (F), reaching conclusions by weighing important values to arrive at harmony; (3) opposite attitudes or orientations of energyextraversion (E), gaining and using energy primarily in the outer world of activities and people, versus introversion (I), gaining and using energy through the inner world of ideas, concepts, and internal experience; and (4) a judging (J) attitude when functioning in the outer world, using the preferred form of judgment (thinking or feeling) to organize the world and achieve closure, versus a perceiving (P) attitude in the outer world, using the preferred form of perception (sensing or intuition) to stay open as long as possible to incoming information. The judging-perceiving dichotomy was added by Myers and Briggs to Jung's original three dichotomies as a way of identifying the dynamic character of each type.
Keywords: C.G. Jung; MBTI; Meyers-Briggs type indicator; perception and judgment; personality type