Standard Article

Psychological Measurement, Bias in

  1. Robert G. Malgady

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0728

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Malgady, R. G. 2010. Psychological Measurement, Bias in. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1–3.

Author Information

  1. Touro College, New York, NY

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


The issue of reliable and valid assessment of mental health status has been faced in clinical practice since the inception of efforts to evaluate intelligence, dating at least to Spearman's theory of general intelligence. G-theory, as it became known, presumed that individuals possess an overall intelligence, as opposed to more varied intelligences in diverse areas, as later expressed by Thurstone (1927), and more recently rearticulated by Gardner (1983). Unfortunately, efforts to develop psychological assessment instruments have historically focused and been standardized on white middle-class males. Little or no consideration was given to the diversity of the U.S. population with respect to gender, race, ethnicity, religiosity, or any other relevant demographic characteristic. Even within the United States, various verbal expressions are unclear or uninterpretable among some native born Americans in all parts of the country.


  • item bias;
  • ethnicity;
  • minority populations;
  • measurement standardization