Standard Article

Racial Differences

  1. Tiffany M. Griffin,
  2. James S. Jackson

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0767

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Griffin, T. M. and Jackson, J. S. 2010. Racial Differences. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1–3.

Author Information

  1. University of Michigan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


DuBois (1989) stated that the “problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.” Contemporary research reveals that the color line still poses major problems in the twenty-first century (Jackson, 2000). Racial differences have been observed in many domains, including housing, employment, education, social and economic standing and wealth, occupational opportunities, criminal convictions and incarceration, and physical and mental health statuses. Thus, although interpersonal racial discrimination, or behavioral manifestations of racial bias, has become subtler (Mays, Cochran, & Barnes, 2007), racial differences are still extremely pervasive and are projected to remain for years to come (Jackson, 2000). This article discusses the concept of race and research findings related to mechanisms by which race may produce disparities between social groups, and it ends with a brief discussion of important theoretical and empirical considerations that researchers and consumers of psychological literature should take into account when thinking about race and race differences.


  • bias;
  • cross-cultural psychology;
  • individual differences;
  • racial differences;
  • racism