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  1. Steven M. Elias

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0852

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Elias, S. M. 2010. Sexism. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1–2.

Author Information

  1. New Mexico State University

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


According to U.S. Census Bureau statistics (Spraggins, 2005), the median income for full-time, year-round female employees is $9,000 less than that of their male equivalents. Nationwide, Caucasian women typically earn 70 cents for every dollar earned by Caucasian men. Although females make up just 51% of the U.S. population, they account for 56% of Americans living in poverty. Even though it is true that discrimination directed toward females has decreased over the past several decades, it is still more difficult for a female to gain and retain a professional position than it is for a comparable male jobseeker. Once employed, it is currently more arduous for a female employee to be promoted at work than it is for a male employee with identical qualifications (Crosby & Stockdale, 2007). On reading these facts and figures, one may ask why such disparities exist between males and females. In answering such a question, most would indicate that sexism or gender discrimination is to blame. Furthermore, if asked, most people would probably agree that such difficulties continue to plague women.


  • sexism;
  • chauvinism;
  • ambivalent sexism