Standard Article

Toilet Training

  1. Edward R. Christophersen1,
  2. Susan M. Vanscoyoc2

Published Online: 30 JAN 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0998

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology

How to Cite

Christophersen, E. R. and Vanscoyoc, S. M. 2010. Toilet Training. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Kansas

  2. 2

    University of Phoenix

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 JAN 2010


Toilet training is a routine developmental topic of discussion with health care providers. Very few empirical data are available for providing guidance to parents about toilet training. A report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2006) reviewed outcome studies for 26 observational studies and 8 controlled trials that they were able to identify on toilet-training procedures. The authors reported no comparison studies in peer-reviewed journals of different approaches to toilet training, including the two most popular approaches: the structured behavioral approach of Foxx and Azrin (1973) and Brazelton's child-oriented approach (1962).


  • child development;
  • parent-child relationship;
  • parental training;
  • toilet training