19. Mixed-Effects Models

  1. Michael J. Crawley

Published Online: 14 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470515075.ch19

The R Book

The R Book

How to Cite

Crawley, M. J. (2007) Mixed-Effects Models, in The R Book, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470515075.ch19

Author Information

  1. Imperial College London at Silwood Park, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 14 SEP 2007
  2. Published Print: 20 APR 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470510247

Online ISBN: 9780470515075



  • fixed effects and random effects;
  • independence of errors;
  • mixed-effects models;
  • linear mixed model formula lme;
  • model simplification in hierarchical sampling;
  • time series analysis in mixed-effects models;
  • regression in mixed-effects models;
  • fixed effects in hierarchical sampling


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Replication and Pseudoreplication

  • The lme and lmer Functions

  • Best Linear Unbiased Predictors

  • A Designed Experiment with Different Spatial Scales: Split Plots

  • Hierarchical Sampling and Variance Components Analysis

  • Model Simplification in Hierarchical Sampling

  • Mixed-Effects Models with Temporal Pseudoreplication

  • Time Series Analysis in Mixed-Effects Models

  • Random Effects in Designed Experiments

  • Regression in Mixed-Effects Models

  • Generalized Linear Mixed Models

  • Fixed Effects in Hierarchical Sampling

  • Error Plots from a Hierarchical Analysis