How Do Visual Instructions Influence the Motor System?

  1. Gregory R. Bock organizer and
  2. Jamie A. Goode
  1. R. E. Passingham1,2,
  2. I. Toni2,
  3. N. Schluter1 and
  4. M. F. S. Rushworth1

Published Online: 28 SEP 2007

DOI: 10.1002/9780470515563.ch8

Novartis Foundation Symposium 218 - Sensory Guidance of Movement

Novartis Foundation Symposium 218 - Sensory Guidance of Movement

How to Cite

Passingham, R. E., Toni, I., Schluter, N. and Rushworth, M. F. S. (2007) How Do Visual Instructions Influence the Motor System?, in Novartis Foundation Symposium 218 - Sensory Guidance of Movement (eds G. R. Bock and J. A. Goode), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK. doi: 10.1002/9780470515563.ch8

Author Information

  1. 1

    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3UD, UK

  2. 2

    Wellcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, Institute of Neurology, 12 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 SEP 2007

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780471982623

Online ISBN: 9780470515563

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Keywords:

  • visual instructions;
  • motor systems;
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging;
  • positron emission tomography;
  • visual pathways

Summary

The paper distinguishes the use of visual cues to guide reaching and grasping, and the ability to learn to associate arbitrary sensory cues with movements. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we have shown that the arbitrary association of visual cues and movements involves the ventral visual system (prestriate, inferotemporal and ventral prefrontal cortex), the basal ganglia and the dorsal premotor cortex. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we have shown that the evoked haemodynamic responses in the ventral visual system are time-locked to the presentation of the visual cues, that the response in the motor cortex is locked to the time of response, and that the response in the dorsal premotor cortex shows cue- related, movement-related and set-related components. Using PET we have shown that there are learning-related changes in activation in both the ventral prestriate cortex and the basal ganglia (globus pallidus) when subjects learn a visuomotor associative task. We argue that the basal ganglia may act as a flexible system for learning the association of sensory cues and movements.