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Musculoskeletal Disorders

Clinical Trials

  1. Masami Akai

Published Online: 15 MAR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470571224.pse224

Pharmaceutical Sciences Encyclopedia

Pharmaceutical Sciences Encyclopedia

How to Cite

Akai, M. 2010. Musculoskeletal Disorders. Pharmaceutical Sciences Encyclopedia. 25:1–23.

Author Information

  1. Director, Rehabilitation Hospital, National Rehabilitation Center Japan, Saitama, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2010


The term musculoskeletal disorders refer to conditions that involve the supporting structures of the body, such as the trunk and the bones and joints of the extremities. Musculoskeletal disorders are the most common cause of severe, long-lasting pain and physical disability affecting hundreds of millions of people in the world. Treatments in musculoskeletal disorders are classified into “drug therapy,” “therapeutic exercise,” “physical agents,” “orthotics and devices,” “education or care packages,” and “others.”


  • musculoskeletal disorders;
  • pain;
  • clinical trials;
  • interventional procedures;
  • evidence-based medicine (EBM)