7. Error Propagation in Angle and Distance Observations

Published Online: 9 MAR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470586266.ch7

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis

Adjustment Computations: Spatial Data Analysis

How to Cite

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 9 MAR 2010
  2. Published Print: 22 MAR 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470464915

Online ISBN: 9780470586266



  • error propagation in angle and distance observations;
  • error sources in horizontal angles;
  • effects of instrument and target setup errors;
  • reduced by increasing sight distances;
  • errors in reading conventional transits and theodolites;
  • instrument-centering errors


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Error Sources in Horizontal Angles

  • Reading Errors

  • Pointing Errors

  • Estimated Pointing and Reading Errors with Total Stations

  • Target-Centering Errors

  • Instrument-Centering Errors

  • Effects of Leveling Errors in Angle Observations

  • Numerical Example of Combined Error Propagation in a Single Horizontal Angle

  • Using Estimated Errors to Check Angular Misclosure in a Traverse

  • Errors in Astronomical Observations for Azimuth

  • Errors in Electronic Distance Observations

  • Software

  • Problems

  • Programming Problems