6. Making Programming Masculine

  1. Thomas J. Misa
  1. Nathan Ensmenger

Published Online: 5 AUG 2010

DOI: 10.1002/9780470619926.ch6

Gender Codes

Gender Codes

How to Cite

Ensmenger, N. (2010) Making Programming Masculine, in Gender Codes (ed T. J. Misa), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470619926.ch6

Editor Information

  1. University of Minnesota, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 5 AUG 2010
  2. Published Print: 6 JUL 2010

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9780470597194

Online ISBN: 9780470619926



  • making programming masculine - “The Computer Girls,” critical role in early computing, in computer programming;
  • perception that programming ability - innate ability, rather than an acquired skill;
  • masculine value embodiment - professionalism increasing social status, autonomy, opportunities for advancement, and better pay


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • In The Beginning were the Women…

  • The “Bad Boys” of Programming

  • Professionalization = Masculinization

  • Conclusion

  • References